Pronouncing "Gadsby"

October 7, 2012

I was reading about a lipogrammatic novel called Gadsby: A Story of Over 50,000 Words Without Using the Letter “E”, by Ernest Vincent Wright, when I wondered how the lack of an overt letter “E” affected the pronunciation of the work.

A bit of Googling1 led me to NLTK, a natural-language toolkit for Python. I typed:

import nltk

and the hard part was already done for me.

Soon I had a hacky script:

import nltk
import re

pronDict = nltk.corpus.cmudict.dict()

def flatten(list):
    return [x for xs in list for x in xs]

def normalizePhoneme(phoneme):
    return re.sub("\d+", "", phoneme)

def wordMatchesPhonemes(phonemes, word):
    if not word in pronDict: return False
    prons = pronDict[word]
    # Flatten pronounciations into a set of normalized phonemes.
    wordPhonemes = map(normalizePhoneme, set(flatten(prons)))
    return any([wp in phonemes for wp in wordPhonemes])

def wordsMatchingPhonemes(text, phonemes):
    words = set(re.sub("[^\w| ]", "", text.lower()).split())
    return [word for word in words if wordMatchesPhonemes(phonemes, word)]

When passed a text and a list of phonemes, the wordsMatchingPhonemes function returns a list of the words that contain at least one of these phonemes.

Moby Dick, a text where the author made no special effort to avoid the letter “E”, contains at least one “E” sound in 59% of its words2.

When we analyse Gadsby, a text that contains no words with the letter “E”, we find that only 42% of its words contained at least one “E” sound. It is still a large proportion, however, demonstrating (despite Wright’s Herculean efforts) the cardinality of the “E” sound to the English language.


  1. There are some questions you’ll never know the answer to. But nowadays we have Google, and the set of these unanswerable questions are a great deal smaller.

  2. The phonemes EM, ER, EH, EY, IY, and EM were used to discover words containing “E” sounds.